WG 1: Studying the state of the art in the reuse of NORM residues in building materials and development of a data base with best practices for reuse of NORM residues.
Sub-task 1.1: To set criteria for the evaluation of practices incorporating NORM in building materials and define relevant information to be incorporated in the database.
The realization of a European database will reinforce the technological and industrial impact of this Action allowing making a transparent evaluation of the potentialities of NORM residues for use in building materials. Main focus of the database is the potential application of NORM residues in building materials for buildings but alternative options (e.g. road construction) will also be considered if applicable.
Deliverables: A documented list of criteria for the evaluation of practices incorporating NORM in building materials.
Sub-task 1.2: Characterize NORM residues currently used and investigated for possible use in the synthesis of building materials. Compile the relevant databases per material, ensuring statistical accuracy. Group materials per process that generates them but also per application where they are employed.
Selection of NORM residue streams must be based on the compliance of the residues as building material additives. As an example, the building industry needs a continuous raw material supply
with a rather well controlled (minor) fluctuation in chemistry and mineralogy. In this context, the selection of the residues streams will be based on the current state of art and only materials produced in high quantities will be considered.
WG 1 will start to list and discuss existing practices and practices that are still under research on the use of these residues in building materials. As a starting point, information is used from established industrial sectors, namely: (a) the cement industry, where the residues are used as alternative raw materials, alternative fuels and supplementary cementitious materials, (b) the concrete industry, where the residues are used as supplementary cementitious materials and as aggregates and (c) the ceramic industry, where the residues are used as alternative raw materials. Emerging practices as the use of NORM residues in geopolymers/inorganic polymers, where the residues are used as raw materials, are addressed in more detail by WG 2. Information in the database will be updated in close collaboration between WG 1 and 2.
Deliverables: Database where each residue stream is listed and sorted per process that generates it but also per application where they are employed. This database will be enriched over the years with measurements of residue streams, also per country, and a substantial wealth of data with statistical gravity will become available.
Sub-task 1.3: To investigate and use the newly obtained information regarding the activity concentration index to improve the existing EU activity concentration index database with particular attention to materials containing NORM residues.
Deliverables: Newly obtained information regarding the activity concentration index will be used to improve the existing EU activity concentration index database [Trevisi et al, 2012] in order to increase the total number of samples, with particular attention to materials containing NORM residues.
Sub-task 1.4: To obtain and investigate the information from representative national surveys in order to obtain a more significant EU view regarding the use of NORM in building materials. Deliverables: Information of representative national surveys that will be added to the new database with best practices for reuse of NORM residues in building materials.
Sub-task 1.5: To perform a cost-benefit analysis and a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis on the practices considered in the database.
The new database will combine research information towards industrial practices incorporating NORM residues in building materials. For the considered practices a cost-benefit analysis and a
SWOT analysis will be included if sufficient information is available.
Deliverables: Cost-benefit analysis and a SWOT analysis on practices considered in the database.
Sub-task 1.6: To provide input for the European Waste Catalogue.
Among individual waste already classified in European Waste Catalogue, EWC, more than 200 may be at least suspected as containing enhanced concentration of natural radionuclides [Michalik et al. 2011]. The information in the database will be used to provide input for the European Waste Catalogue. By supporting this initiative the acceptance level of this Action within the EU will increase.
Deliverables: Updated information for the European Waste Catalogue.